Emergence of Divergent Factions (Metran Kakshy & Bava Kakshy) in the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church

Post-Synod Changes and Patriarchal Transitions

The Synod of Mulanthuruthy in 1876 marked the complete supremacy of the Antiochene Orthodox Patriarch over the Malankara Church. Patriarch Peter III, instrumental in this shift, died in 1894. Ignatius Abdul Masih II was then installed as Patriarch on June 16, 1895. However, in 1905, he was deposed by the Turkish Sultan Abdul Hamid, and Mar Ignatius Abdullah Sattuf was enthroned as Patriarch Mar Ignatius Abdullah II on August 28, 1906. In Kerala, Mar Dionysius V was succeeded by Mar Dionysius VI (1909-1934).

Conflicts Over Patriarchal Supremacy

The new Patriarch Abdullah II's visit to Malankara in 1909 and his claim of complete supremacy led to disputes with Mar Dionysius VI, who argued for the Patriarch's spiritual supremacy but denied his control over temporal affairs. The conflict escalated, and on May 31, 1911, the Patriarch excommunicated Mar Dionysius VI and his followers, enthroning Mar Koorillos (1911-1917) as the metropolitan of the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Church.

Formation of Two Factions

The Patriarch's intervention led to the formation of two rival factions within the Malankara Church: the Metran Kakshy (Bishop's Party), led by the excommunicated group, and the Bava Kakshy (Patriarch's Party), which recognized the Patriarch's full authority.

Autonomous Church Formation and Catholicate Installation

In response, Mar Dionysius VI convened an assembly at Kottayam on September 7, 1911, declaring the independence of their church and seeking the support of the deposed Patriarch Abdul Masih II. Arriving in Kerala on June 13, 1912, Abdul Masih II absolved Mar Dionysius VI from excommunication. On September 15, 1912, he established the Catholicate of the East, installing Murimattathil Paulos Mar Ivanios as Moran Mar Paulos Baselios, the first Catholicos of the Syrian Orthodox Church in Malankara, and consecrated three bishops.

Canonical Competence and Autonomy of Catholicate

The Patriarch's bulls, issued after the investiture ceremony and in February 1913, affirmed the catholicos's authority to serve spiritual elements, ordain metropolitans, bishops, and consecrate holy Myron. The catholicate was granted autonomy to elect its catholicos and bishops, effectively making this faction an autocephalous church.

Naming and Constitution of the Churches

Over time, the Patriarch's Party took the name Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church, maintaining full allegiance to the Antiochene patriarchal structure. The Bishop's Party became the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, an autocephalous church independent of the Antiochene Patriarch. This split led to the eventual formation of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church from the autocephalous faction.

Institutional Structure and Governance

The constitution of the catholicate, defining the church's structure for preserving its autocephaly, was enforced by the Malankara Association on December 26, 1934. The holy synod, comprising the catholicos and bishops, held legislative, administrative, and disciplinary powers over spiritual and ecclesiastical matters, functioning as the governing body of the church.

history/malankara_syrian_orthodox_church_from_its_inception_until_the_time_of_reunion/emergence_of_divergent_factions_metran_kakshy_bava_kakshy_in_the_malankara_orthodox_syrian_church.txt · Last modified: 2024/01/22 07:21 by smcc